新網絡營銷基礎與實踐

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            電子簽名法

            一、何謂電子簽名?


               電子簽名是指數據電文中以電子形式所含、所附用于識別簽名人身份并表明簽名人認可其中內容的數據。通俗點說,電子簽名就是通過密碼技術對電子文件的簽名,也可以說它就是電子印章。

              從法律上講,簽名有兩個功能:即標識簽名人和表示簽名人對文件內容的認可。在傳統商務活動中,為了保證交易的安全、真實、有效,一份書面合同或公文要由當事人或其負責人簽字、蓋章,以便讓交易雙方識別是誰簽的合同,保證簽字或蓋章的人認可合同的內容,在法律上才能承認這份合同是有效的。而在電子商務活動中,合同或文件是以電子文件的形式表現和傳遞的。在電子文件上,傳統的手寫簽名和蓋章是無法進行的,這就必須依靠技術手段來替代。能夠在電子文件中識別雙方交易人的真實身份,保證交易的安全性和真實性以及不可抵賴性,起到與手寫簽名或者蓋章同等作用的簽名的電子技術手段,稱之為電子簽名。

              實現電子簽名的技術手段有很多種,但目前比較成熟的,世界先進國家普遍使用的電子簽名技術還是“數字簽名”技術。所謂“數字簽名”就是通過某種密碼運算生成一系列符號及代碼組成電子密碼進行簽名,來代替書寫簽名或印章,對于這種電子式的簽名還可進行技術驗證,其驗證的準確度是一般手工簽名和圖章的驗證而無法比擬的。“數字簽名”是目前電子商務、電子政務中應用最普遍、技術最成熟的、可操作性最強的一種電子簽名方法。它采用了規范化的程序和科學化的方法,用于鑒定簽名人的身份以及對一項電子數據內容的認可。它還能驗證出文件的原文在傳輸過程中有無變動,確保傳輸電子文件的完整性、真實性和不可抵賴性。
              電子簽名除了目前比較成熟的“數字簽名”技術外,還包括目前正在開發的“生物識別”技術,如日本索尼公司已開發出了一種可記錄用戶指紋的產品,用戶只需在掃描器上按下自己的指印,就可以完成簽名的工作。據有關專家介紹, “生物識別”是根據個別人的獨特特點,加以自動化的辨別,目前主要包括:指紋、臉形、聲音、虹膜、手形、掌紋、簽名辨認等。美國麻省理工學院評出的“改變未來的十大科技”中,生物識別、自然語言辨認占了兩席,而這兩種技術均可用于電子簽名。

            二、子簽名法的立法背景

                  電子簽名法是以規范作為電子商務(也包括電子政務)信息載體的數據電文和當事人在數據電文上以電子數據形式“簽名”為主要內容的法律制度。以計算機網絡和電子技術應用為依托的電子商務,具有遠比傳統商務更為便捷、高效、覆蓋面廣、交易費用低廉等明顯的優勢,更能適應信息時代和經濟全球化的需要,因而其發展迅猛,得到日益廣泛的應用。

            三、《電子簽名法》的主要內容

            (一) 明確了《電子簽名法》的適用范圍

              《電子簽名法》第三條第一款明確規定:“民事活動中的合同或者其他文件、單證等文書,當事人可以約定使用或者不使用電子簽名、數據電文”。 該條規定體現了當事人意思自治的精神和當事人約定優先的原則。結合該條第二款和第三款規定,《電子簽名法》是否適用于民商事活動中的合同或者其他文件、單證等文書,取決于當事人是否約定使用電子簽名、數據電文的文書,以及當事人的約定是否與法律規定相悖。
              1、 如果當事人約定使用電子簽名、數據電文的文書,則《電子簽名法》第三條第二款規定:“不得僅因為其采用電子簽名、數據電文的形式而否定其法律效力”。
              2、 如果當事人明確約定不使用電子簽名、數據電文的文書,那么,電子簽名對交易相對方不發生法律效力”。
              3、 如果當事人事先沒有明確約定是否使用電子簽名、數據電文的文書,則電子簽名是否具有法律效力取決于交易相對方是否予以事后追認或實際予以履行。如果交易相對方事后予以追認或予以實際履行,則電子簽名對交易相對方發生法律效力;反之,則不予以適用。
              4、 如果當事人約定使用電子簽名、數據電文的文書涉及《電子簽名法》第三條第三款規定的四種情況的(即:(1)涉及婚姻、收養、繼承等人身關系的; (2)涉及土地、房屋等不動產權益轉讓的; (3)涉及停止供水、供熱、供氣、供電等公用事業服務的; (4)法律、行政法規規定的不適用電子文書的其他情形。),則不適用于《電子簽名法》第三條第二款有關“不得僅因為其采用電子簽名、數據電文的形式而否定其法律效力”的規定。

            (二) 規定了電子簽名與手寫簽名或者蓋章具有同等的法律效力的條件

              根據《電子簽名法》第十三條和第十四條的規定, 電子簽名同時符合下列條件的,視為可靠的電子簽名并具有與手寫簽名或者蓋章同等的法律效力:
              1、電子簽名制作數據用于電子簽名時,屬于電子簽名人專有;
              2、簽署時電子簽名制作數據僅由電子簽名人控制;
              3、簽署后對電子簽名的任何改動能夠被發現;
              4、簽署后對數據電文內容和形式的任何改動能夠被發現。
               但是,當事人自行選擇使用符合其約定的可靠條件的,可以從其約定。

            (三)規定了數據電文具有法律效力及證據效力的條件

               《電子簽名法》第四條規定:“能夠有形地表現所載內容,并可以隨時調取查用的數據電文,視為符合法律、法規要求的書面形式”。

            網絡營銷詞典內容均由網友提供,僅供參考。

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